This hunger for new forms and potentialities quite naturally leads to the exploration of new approaches and new technologies. In the past 150 years in particular knowledge from the sciences, including technological advances in the fields of optics and photo-chemistry leading to photography, have become increasingly important. Even where artists have rebelled, rejecting science and technology, deciding instead in favor of older methods and attitudes, the act of rejection itself can be an instrument as sharp and potentially productive as any other. This is particularly true in the case of the longstanding love-hate relationship between painting and photography; it could be argued that, absent the disputes, much fruitful experimentation and innovation would not have occurred, as it did in fact occur on all sides.

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